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This article is about the league in Turkey. For the league in Northern Cyprus, see Süper Lig (Northern Cyprus).
Spor Toto Süper Lig
SLD2
Country Flag of Turkey.png Turkey
Confederation UEFA
Founded 1956
Number of teams 18
Relegation to TFF First League
Level on pyramid 1
Domestic cup(s) Türkiye Kupası
Süper Kupa
UEFA cup(s) UEFA Champions League
UEFA Europa League
Current champions İstanbul Başakşehir (1st title) (2019–20)
TV beIN Sports 1
TRT (Highlights only)
MP & Silva (Global highlights)
Website Official website
Football current event 2020-21

The Süper Lig (ˈsypæɾ liɟ, Super League) is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system. It is one of the top leagues in the UEFA confederation, and the winner of the competition automatically qualifies for the UEFA Champions League group stage. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated to and from the 1. Lig. The season runs from August to May, with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday. It is sponsored by Spor Toto and therefore officially known as the Spor Toto Süper Lig. The competition formed as the Milli Lig in 1958. It was the first national league competition held in Turkey. Previously, league competitions took place in a few cities, including Adana, Ankara, Eskişehir, Istanbul, Izmir, Kayseri, and Trabzon. It is currently ranked 11th in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 66 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but just 5 have won the title: Galatasaray (22), Fenerbahçe (19), Beşiktaş (15), Trabzonspor (6) and Bursaspor (1).

History

Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Thessaloníki. The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in 1904–05. The first champions were Imogene FC. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Milli Lig in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul Football League and Milli Lig, several other city leagues took place: Adana (1923), Ankara (1923), Eskişehir (1920), Izmir (1923), Kayseri (1936), and Trabzon (1923). The Milli Küme was the first step towards a national league competition.

Started in 1937, the Milli Küme was an inter-city competition between clubs in Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir. The competition lasted until 1950. The Federation Cup was created in 1956 and used as a cup competition to decide a champion. This champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The cup competition was held for two years until it was replaced by the Milli Lig. Beşiktaş won both times, and represented twice Turkey in the European Cup during the two-year span.

The top clubs from Ankara, Istanbul, and İzmir competed in the 1959 Milli Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958. The 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet (İstanbul), Altay (İzmir), Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş (İstanbul), Beykoz (İstanbul), Fatih Karagümrük (İstanbul), Fenerbahçe (İstanbul), Galatasaray (İstanbul), Gençlerbirliği (Ankara), Göztepe (İzmir), Hacettepe (Ankara), İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka (İzmir Province) and Vefa (Istanbul). Just 4 of those clubs are competing in the most recent 2012–13 Süper Lig: Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Galatasaray and Gençlerbirliği. The first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first Gol Kralı (Goal King) was Metin Oktay. No clubs were promoted or relegated at the end of the first season.

The 2.Lig (Second League) was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Milli Lig or Turkish National League became known as the 1.Lig (First League). Before the creation of a second league, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games. The top three teams of the seven team group were promoted to the Milli Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1.Lig, the formerly titled 1.Lig became the Süper Lig.

Competition format

There are 18 clubs in the Süper Lig. During the course of the season (from August to May) each club plays the others twice (a double round robin system), once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive three points for a win and one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points, then head-to-head record, then goal difference, and then goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to head record and then goal difference determine the winner. The three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1.Lig and the top two teams from the 1.Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1.Lig clubs, are promoted in their place.

Qualification for European competitions

As of the start of the 2012–13 Süper Lig season qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the third qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, and fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has already qualified for European competition through their league finish, then the runners-up take their place in the play-off round. If the runners-up have also qualified, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place.

Last updated 17 August 2014

Clubs

The following 18 clubs will compete in the Süper Lig during the 2014–15 season.

Club City
or
town
Position
in
2013–14
season
First
season
in
top
division
Number
of
seasons
in top
division
First season
of
current spell
in
top division
Top
division
titles
Last
top
division
title
Akhisar BelediyesporAkhisar02110th2012-1332012-13
BalıkesirsporBalıkesir0112nd in the TFF First League1975-7622014–15
Beşiktaşİstanbul0043rd1959571959132008–09
BursasporBursa0018th1967–68462006–0712009–10
Çaykur RizesporRize01113th1979-80152013–14
EskişehirsporEskişehir00712th1966–67292008–09
Fenerbahçeİstanbul0021st1959571959192013-14
Galatasarayİstanbul003 2nd1959571959192012-13
GaziantepsporGaziantep01315th1979–80291990–91
GençlerbirliğiAnkara0109th1959431989–90
İstanbul Başakşehir F.K.İstanbul0061st in the TFF First League2007-0872014–15
Kardemir Demir Çelik KarabüksporKarabük0197th1993–9482010–11
Kasımpaşaİstanbul 0226th1959-60112012-13
Kayseri ErciyessporKayseri00614th1973-74132013–14
Mersin İdmanyurduMersin020TFF First League playoff winner1967-68142014–15
KonyasporKonya02011th1988-89142013–14
SivassporSivas0155th2005–06102005–06
TrabzonsporTrabzon0054th1974–75411974–7561983-84

Champions

Main article: List of Turkish football champions

Only 5 clubs have been champions since the beginning of the Super League in 1959: Galatasaray 19 times, Fenerbahçe 19 times, Beşiktaş 11 (with an additional two championships counted in the two years before the league was formed for a total of 13, see note below), Trabzonspor 6 and Bursaspor 1 time.

Team/stars Winners Runners-up Years won
Fenerbahçe
Star full Star full Star full
19 19 1959, 1961, 1964, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1974, 1975, 1978, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2014
Galatasaray
Star full Star full Star full
19 10 1962, 1963, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2013
Beşiktaş
Star full Star full
13 14 1957*, 1958*, 1960, 1966, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2009
Trabzonspor
Star full
6 8 1976, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984
Bursaspor 1 0 2010

Notes

Beşiktaş formally requested that championships won in the 1956/57 and 1957/58 versions of the Turkish Federation Cup be counted as Turkish Professional First Division championships to the Turkish Football Federation. The ruling on this matter was announced in a press release on March 25, 2002 which indicated that the championships won by Beşiktaş in the Turkish Federation Cup will be considered as national championships but the Turkish Federation Cup can not be considered as the precursor to the Turkish Professional First Division (later named Süper Lig) and as such these titles can not be categorized as a Turkish Professional First Division (or Süper Lig) titles. Based on this ruling, the Turkish Federation Cup wins by Beşiktaş count towards the star rating system, giving Beşiktaş two more championships for the purposes of the star rating system than the number of Süper Lig titles won by the club.

Star rating system

Clubs are permitted to place a golden star above their crest on their uniforms for every five national championships won. For the 2014/15 season Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray are permitted three golden stars, Beşiktaş are permitted two golden stars and Trabzonspor are permitted one golden star to be placed above their crest on their jerseys.

Participation in the league (2014-15 season is included)

Teams in bold play in 2014-15 Süper Lig.

All-time top scorers

RankPlayerGoalsAppsRate
1 Flag of Turkey Hakan Şükür 249 487 0.51
2 Flag of Turkey Tanju Çolak 240 281 0.85
3 Flag of Turkey Hami Mandirali 218 477 0.46
4 Flag of Turkey Metin Oktay 217 258 0.84
5 Flag of Turkey Aykut Kocaman 212 348 0.61
6 Flag of Turkey Feyyaz Uçar 198 409 0.48
7 Flag of Turkey Serkan Aykut 147 559 0.26
8 Flag of Turkey Fevzi Zemzem 144 356 0.40
9 Flag of Turkey Necati Ateş 140 362 0.39
10 Flag of Turkey Cenk İşler 137 349 0.39

As of 26 January 2015 (Bold denotes players still playing in the league).

All-time most appearances

RankPlayerAppsYears
1 Flag of Turkey Oğuz Çetin 503 1981–2000
2 Flag of Turkey Rıza Çalımbay 494 1980–1996
3 Flag of Turkey Hakan Şükür 488 1987–2000, 2003–2008
4 Flag of Turkey Hami Mandıralı 476 1984–1998, 1999–2003
5 Flag of Turkey Kemal Yıldırım 475 1976–1995
6 Flag of Turkey Mehmet Nas 453 1997–
7 Flag of Turkey Recep Çetin 437 1984–2001
8 Flag of Turkey Bülent Korkmaz 430 1988–2005
9 Flag of Turkey Müjdat Yetkiner 429 1979–1995
10 Flag of Turkey Ömer Çatkıç 427 1995–2012

As of 18 May 2014 (Bold denotes players still playing in the league).

See also

External links

Süper Lig seasons

2000-01 · 2001-02 · 2002-03 · 2003-04 · 2004-05 · 2005-06 · 2006-07 · 2007-08 · 2008-09 · 2009-10 · 2010-11 · 2011-12 · 2012-13 · 2013-14 · 2014-15 · 2015–16 · 2016–17 · 2017–18 ·

Template:Turkish football champions Template:Turkish Super League topscorers

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