LFF was established on June 19, 1921. It was called Latvian Football Union and was active until 1940 when it was disbanded due to the annexation by the Soviet Union. In 1922 the Latvian championship organized by Latvian Football Union consisted of 12 associations, 22 teams and 479 football players. A year earlier rules of football were published in Latvian for the very first time, but in May 1923 Latvia was accepted to FIFA. Herberts Baumanis was the representative of Latvia in the acceptance ceremony in France. In 1925 Latvian Football Union established football unions in the regions of country, but in 1927 established Virslīga championship. It consisted of three of the strongest teams from Riga and a club from Liepāja while others were playing in tournaments of their regions. This system was existent for the whole period of Latvia's first independence. The number of teams in Virslīga increased to eight.
LFF renewed its operation in 1990 right after Latvia regained independence. It was re-accepted by FIFA in 1992 and in the same year it joined UEFA.
As of now LFF employs more than 40 people. The current president of LFF is Guntis Indriksons, but on daily basis the business of LFF is managed by its general secretary Jānis Mežeckis who works in LFF from 1993.